Again, the most relevant treaty in this conflict is the MBTA of 1918. While the MBTA protects migratory birds from unauthorized killing, it maintains state flexibility in regulating migratory bird issues. According to the MBTA, the “removal” of cormorants is illegal, except according to state regulations. The MBTA provides regulatory authority to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in the United States, which is committed to maintaining and managing migratory birds by maintaining healthy populations of migratory birds.  The MBTA does not have a central agency that determines the desired population of cormorants or migratory birds. Thus, the United States has almost infinite leeway to manage the cormorant (according to the best available scientific principles determined by USFWS biologists) as the United States deems appropriate, because the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service can determine the desired cormorant population. As long as the U.S. keeps the cormorant population “healthy” by its own definition, the U.S.
does not violate the MBTA, and Canada must accept the possible depletion of the cormorant population. Even though the United States has violated the MBTA, the MBTA does not have the appropriate enforcement and punishment provisions in cases where state actors violate the MBTA.  Order to plunder double-crested cormorants to protect public resources. 68 FR 58035 (8 October 2003).  Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 2006. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources website (online). Access 2006-2-21 to www.dnr.state.mn.us/volunteer/mayjun01/cormorant.html (When looking at cormorants on a lake, people assume that each dive erases a pike perch). 4.1. 1.3 Shoot to Scare Shoot to Scare is one of the most widely used techniques to deter cormorants in places across Europe and elsewhere. It is one of the few techniques used in all types of water, from small to large, from inland waters to coastal waters, as well as in aquaculture facilities. Not surprisingly, the EIA was followed in October 2003 by the issuance of looting orders allowing officers to kill cormorants that catch or threaten to catch fish in aquaculture facilities, as well as cormorants that threaten public resources.
 Although the order to loot public funds initially requires the use of non-lethal methods, lethal control methods, including destruction of eggs and nests, cervical dislocation, and firearm killing, are permitted.  These looting orders remain in effect until April 30, 2009, unless they were revoked or renewed before that date.  The proposed measure originally described in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service`s Environmental Impact Statement would require the slaughter of approximately 150,000 cormorants.  The cormorant population has gone through interesting cycles over the past 100 years. The early twentieth century saw a large number of cormorants. Some reports in Minnesota cite hundreds of thousands of cormorants moving north along the Mississippi River.  Cormorants colonized the Great Lakes in the 1920s and remained there until the 1950s, before the cormorant finally sank.
The decline of the cormorant was due to reproductive disorders caused by the high content of toxic chemicals, mainly DDT and PCBs, present in freshwater in regions inhabited by the cormorant.  DDT and PCB toxins infected the cormorant after eating many contaminated fish. By eating the contaminated prey, the cormorant`s eggshells became thinner, resulting in up to 95% of egg rupture in some areas reported around the Great Lakes during this period.  The first course of action should be to educate the American athlete with specific facts about the cormorant and its relationship to the overall ecology of the aquatic ecosystem. The athlete can see how the cormorant catches fish in an area that is depleted due to a variety of other environmental factors, but it is the cormorant that becomes the scapegoat for the perceived reduction of stocks. First of all, it is important that those working on the eradication of the cormorant know that the bird is native to North America. Due to the recent population boom, some athletes consider the cormorant to be an evasive species, similar to the Great Lakes zebra muscle, which consumes five times its body weight in fish each day, but this is inaccurate speculation. It is important to spread facts about the cormorant about an inaccurate perception. Second, the public should be aware of the past history of the cormorant population due to the effects of DDT in U.S.
freshwater. The North American cormorant is a species that is threatened with extinction, but has recovered thanks to efforts to conserve North America`s fresh water. Finally, the American people must be reminded of the benefits of biodiversity. While the benefits of biodiversity are not always obvious, the United States should not be so quick to eradicate a cormorant population without fully understanding its role in a complex ecosystem. Liz White, Executive Director of the Animal Alliance of Canada, adds: “The hunting season allows licensed hunters to kill up to 15 cormorants per day for the duration of the 3 and a half month hunt. There is no maximum number of cormorants that can be killed, and no monitoring. If even a tiny percentage of Ontario`s 197,000 hunters chose to participate, Ontario`s cormorants could be on the road to extinction. However, recreational and professional fishermen also claimed that cormorants deplete populations of the wild fish they are looking for. In 2003, for example, the FWS issued a separate order to plunder “public resources” in 24 eastern and central states. This measure allowed state, tribal and federal government wildlife agencies to kill cormorants to protect wild fish populations and fish in government hatcheries and prevent nesting or sleeping birds from affecting habitat. It authorized the killing of birds by “egg oil (100% corn oil), destruction of eggs and nests, cervical dislocation, firearms and CO2 suffocation.” This arrangement has resulted in an average of 22,000 cormorant deaths per year.
Hoping to defuse these conflicts, the FWS issued an aquaculture “looting order” in 1998 that allowed fish farmers in 13 eastern and central states to kill cormorants without permission.